Department of Animal Nutriotion
- In urban and peri-urban areas majority of farmers follow sani method followed by moist and dry concentrate mixture in feeding dairy animals. Feeding complete feed system in dairy animals was observed to be superior over conventional feeding system in terms of dry matter intake and digestibility of different nutrients. Further ruminal biochemical parameters viz. total nitrogen, protein nitrogen, TVFA and ruminal enzymes viz. carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, α and β glycosidase were significantly higher in animals fed complete ration, which may be advantageous in improving the utilization of different nutrients for production purpose. The complete feed with green fodder was found superior in terms of improvement in milk production in crossbred cattle as compared to conventional feeding system and also complete feed without green fodder. At farmers field, a feeding trial was conducted on lactating cows in which feeding of complete ration increased milk production by 3 – 4 kg as compared to the existing traditional feeding system followed by the farmers.The enzymes produced by the ruminal microbes digest fibrous feeds in ruminants. Techniques for the estimation of fibre degrading ruminal enzymes have been standardized. Maximum activity of fibre degrading enzymes was found in the particulate material (PM) fraction at 2 hrs post feeding. The activity of xylanase and β-glucosidase was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in animals fed high roughage ration. The difference in the activity of various enzymes with high roughage or high concentrate ration could be the result of change in microbial population affected by diet composition. Mixture of Bacopa monneiri (brahmi), Eclipta alba (bhringraj) and Urtica dioica (bichchu) herbs at 1 % level in the concentrate mixture as feed additive in the ration of heifers resulted in better growth and nutrient utilization. No adverse effect of these herbs in heifers was observed as assessed from serum biochemical constituents.
- The transgenic cotton seed was found to contain higher percentage of crude protein and ether extract as compared to non-transgenic cotton seed. Both transgenic and non-transgenic cotton seed had similar nutritional values in terms of feed intake, nutrients digestibility, milk yield and milk constituents and without any adverse effect on health status of buffaloes as assessed from hematological constituents.
- Feed intake and palatability of urea treated wheat/ paddy straw was increased. Milk production was increased in crossbred cattle fed with urea treated wheat/ paddy straw. The animals fed urea treated straw did not show any adverse effect. Urea concentration in the milk of animals fed urea treated straw was estimated and the results revealed that the qualitative test was negative while the quantitative test indicated that urea in the milk was within safe limit.
- Green to fodder ratio of 60:40 in terms of dry matter availability was found to be adequate in growing and lactating cattle. For growing heifers under farm conditions TMR containing mustard oil cake is recommended for best result. Wheat bran is cheaper than maize and could be used to the extent of 80 % of the requirement in concentrate mixture. Lactating cows kept under field conditions produced superior lactation performance with TMR-1, which contain mustard oil cake. Lactating cows kept under farm conditions also produced more milk, consumed lesser TMR containing mustard oil cake.
- The effective dry matter degradability revealed that cotton seed cake is less degradable compared to mustard cake and linseed cake. Increased UDP level in the diet did not affect the blood biochemical constituents and serum enzyme activities and might decreased stress on hepatic tissue. Increasing UDP level from 41 % to 48 % of dietary CP and also increasing plane of nutrition from 100 % to 115 % of NRC requirements, though non-significant, but maintain a consistently higher milk production and also there was an increase in body weight gain.
- Supplementing the ration of lactating cows with calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids (bypass fat) caused a substantial improvement in the milk yield, 4% FCM yield, fat yield, and SNF yield in milk of cow’s fed with bypass fat at 4% level. The ether extract digestibility was improved in cows fed bypass fat and no decrease in crude fibre digestibility was observed. These observations make the fact well evident that supplementing the ration with bypass fat has no adverse effect on ruminal and total tract digestibility. Analysis of milk fat revealed an increase of unsaturated fatty acids like oleic acid, linoleic and linolenic acid in milk of cows fed calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids. Increase in unsaturated fatty acids in milk may be beneficial to consumers having heart problems. Thus supplementing the ration of lactating cows with bypass fat improved the milk production as well as milk quality.
- Survey regarding existing feeding practices in villages of Haridwar, U.S. Nagar, Nainital and Pithoragarh districts of Uttaranchal was conducted. In districts Haridwar and U.S. Nagar, most of the livestock are generally stall fed but in Nainital and Pithoragarh districts it was mainly the grazing while some animals were reared on stall feeding. Green fodder given to the animals were Berseem and Sugar cane top, Maize, jawar and grasses in Haridwar and U.S. Nagar districts where as the tree leaves/ grasses (Bhimal, Gajjo, Bhatt, Bhiyol, Paral, Shahut) and natural pasture as source of green fodder in Nainital and Pithoragarh districts. Wheat straw and commercial pelleted concentrate mixture was found as the main dry roughage and concentrate, respectively for the feeding purpose of the animals in all the districts. Feeding of mineral mixture to the animals were observed in villages of Nainital and Haridwar districts, however, it was generally not fed to the animals in U.S. Nagar and Pithoragarh districts. Supplementation of basal feed with common salt has been observed in all the districts. Daily DM intakes in buffaloes were found to be higher than of cattle in districts U.S. Nagar, Nainital and Haridwar. CP intake ranged from 210-720 gm/ day in different categories of cattle and buffaloes in districts U.S. Nagar, Nainital and Haridwar while daily intake of ME (Mcal) ranged from 5.50 – 18.75 in these animals. Mineral analysis of fodder and concentrate samples of Nainital and Haridwar revealed optimum level of all minerals expect Copper which was found deficient in fodder. Cobalt was not detected in roughage and concentrate sample collected from Nainital district. Serum mineral profile in animals of Nainital district showed a deficiency of Phosphorus (Haldwani tehsil), Zinc and Magnesium (Bhimtal tehsil), whereas Copper was found to be deficient in both the tehsils. Cobalt was not detected in the serum sample. In Haridwar district, the blood serum minerals concentrations were above the critical level expect Copper and phosphorus. Mineral profile of soils of district Nainital indicated the deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium while Haridwar district showed a deficiency of calcium. Cobalt was not detected in soil sample of districts Haridwar and Nainital.
- Comparative study was conducted on feeding of transgenic (Bt.) brinjal fruits vis-à-vis non-transgenic (non-Bt.) brinjal fruits in 16 crossbred lactating dairy cows divided into 2 groups of 8 cows each along with concentrate mixture and green fodder as per the requirement for 42 days. There was no significant difference in DM intake, milk yield, milk constituents in terms of total solids, fat, protein, lactose, ash content and body weight change between the groups of cows fed transgenic and non-transgenic brinjal fruits. Bt protein in blood and milk of cows fed transgenic brinjal fruits was not detected.
- Three levels of supplementation of soybean oil were investigated on lactating crossbred cows to study the effect on milk yield and milk composition. Four per cent oil in the concentrate mixture supplemented ration revealed improvement in the milk quantity as well as quality in terms of unsaturated fatty acids.
- Organic chromium supplementation in broilers reduced serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and glucose while there was increase in HDL-cholesterol of serum by organic chromium supplementation. In broilers increased retention of crude protein and ether extract by organic chromium supplementation has also been noted. There was also improvement in FCR, weight gain and performance index of broilers due to organic chromium supplementation.
Selected Research Publications
Dr. Ashoka Kumar, Professor & Head
- Singh, V., Kumar, Ashoka, Bohra, B., Nautiyal, N. and Negi, V. 2016. Animal feeds from transgenic crops: a biosafety prospective. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 86(10): 1096-1098.
- Bohra, B., Singh, V. Sharma, R. J., Jaiswal, R. S. and Kumar Ashoka. 2008. Nutritive value of different feed and fodder samples available in the study areas of Uttarakhand mountains. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 78(7): 783-786.
- Kumar, R. Kumar, Ashoka and Rastogi, S. K. 2006. Comparative blood bio-chemical profile of dairy cattle in three different regions of Uttaranchal. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 76(8): 599-604.
- Singh, M., Chauhan, S. S.,Kumar, Ashoka and Jaiswal, R. S. 2004. Performance of heifers on the diet added with malt sprout. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 74(10):1082-1084.
- Verma, P. and Kumar, Ashoka. 2000. A study on the metabolisable energy content of Soybean meal and meat meal through bioassay and prediction equation. Journal of Poultry Science, 35(2): 167-170.
Dr. Anil Kumar, Professor
- Aswal, P., Kumar, A. and Singh, P. K. 2017. Garlic (Allium sativum) and Amla (Emblica officinalis) powder addition in the diet affects production performance of White Leghorn laying hens. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 34(1): 80-86.
- Jarial, S., Kumar, Anil and Padmakumar V. 2013. Assessment of feeding practices, nutritional status and gap for dairy buffaloes in hilly districts Tehri Garhwal and Pithoragarh of Uttarakhand. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 83(9): 960–963.
- Sharma, J., Kumar, Anil, Tiwari, D. P. and Mondal, B. C. 2011. Effect of dietary supplementation of calcium, copper and manganese on nutrient utilization, growth, blood biochemical and mineral profile in crossbred heifers. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 81(5): 493-97.
- Purushothman, S., Kumar, Anil and Tiwari, D. P. 2008. Effect of feeding calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids on performance of lactating crossbred cows. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21(3): 376-385.
- Gupta, N.,Kumar, Anil and Tiwari, D. P. 2005. Effect of herbs as feed additive on nutrient utilization and growth in crossbred heifers fed paddy straw based ration. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 75(1): 52-55.
- Yadava, A. K., Kumar, Anil and Singh, V. 2003. Nutritive evaluation of some native fodder plants in the Hill and the Tarai region of Uttaranchal. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 73: 793-797.
Dr. B.C. Mondal, Professor
- Negi, Divya, Mondal, B. C. and Tiwari, D. P. 2015. Effect of phase feeding on milk production, milk composition, nutrient utilization and haemato-biochemical constituents in lactating crossbred cattle. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology 15: 235-244.
- Dubey, C. S., Mondal, B. C., Tiwari, D. P., Kumar, Anil and Yadav, C. L. 2011. Effect of plane of nutrition on nutrient utilization, haemato-biochemical parameters and immune response in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 11: 27-39.
- Mondal, B. C., Yadava, N. D., Singh, J. P. and Beniwal, R. K. 2009. Utilization efficiency of sewan grass (Lasiurus sindicus) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) haulm based feed in rathi calves. Annals of Arid Zone, 48(1): 75-77.
- Mondal, B. C., Sahoo, A., Mishra, S. C. and Pathak, N. N. 2001. Immune response of growing crossbred (Bos Taurus x Bos indicus) calves fed isonitrogenous grainless diet. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 71(6): 559-562.
- Mondal, B.C., Garg A. K., Kamra, D. N. and Pathak, N. N. 1996. Effect of feeding sodium bicarbonate on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation pattern in buffaloes. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 66(9): 952-954.
Dr. Anshu Rahal, Associate Professor
- Rahal, A. and Rishishwar, K. 2016. Supplementation effect of kadipatta leaf powder on blood parameters in white leghorn layer. International Journal of Basic and Applied Agricultural Research, 14(3): 345-350.
- Rishishwar, K. and Rahal, A. 2016. Effect of supplementation of kadipatta and neem leaf powder on nutritional quality of egg. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 18(7): 30-31.
- Rishishwar, K. and Rahal, A. 2015. Effect of dietary kadipatta and neem leaf powder on nutrients utilization and egg quality in white leghorn layer. International Journal of Basic and Applied Agricultural Research, 13(2): 186-191.
- Rishishwar, K., Rahal, A. and Kumar. Ashoka. 2015. Influence of supplementation of dried neem (Azadirachta indica) and kadipatta (Murraya koienigii) leaf powder on performance and haemato-biochemical parameters in white leghorn layers. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 32(2): 217-220
- Singh, N., Rahal, A. and Mondal, B.C. 2011. Effect of feeding different mineral mixtures on feed intake and nutrient utilization in local goats. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 28(2): 153-156.
Dr. Manju Lata, Assistant Professor
- Lata, M., Rai, S. N., Sharma, V. K., Jha, P., Jain, P. and Kumar, M. 2012. Effect of tannin from Acacia Nilotica pods on in vitro and in sacco nutrient degradability and rumen fermentation pattern. Indian Journal of Dairy Sciences, 65(5): 382-387
- Sharma, V. K., Tomar, S. K., Kundu, S. S., Jain, P., Jha, P., Kumar, M. and Lata, M. 2012. Chemical composition and effect of feeding different levels of sugarcane tops with concentrate mixture/ mustard cake on digestibility in buffalo calves. Indian Journal of Dairy Sciences, 65(5): 393-39.