DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY
1. Establishment of epidemiology of important parasitic diseases:-
- Prevalence of fasciolosis and amphistomosis was highest in tarai region followed by hills and plains, respectively. Buffaloes were the most susceptible hosts followed by cattle, sheep and goats. The incidence of F. gigantica infection was high in post-monsoon season (September- January), with peak in January in the tarai.
- Highest incidence of G.I. nematodosis was in goats followed by sheep, cattle and buffaloes. Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum and Strongyloides sp. were the main parasites recovered from intestines of sheep and goats. Incidence of strongylosis in equines was 78.95% with maximum prevalence in tarai region of Uttaranchal.
- Prevalence of Cysticercus tenuicollis was recorded in 34.94% and 24.19% sheep and goats of tarai region, respectively.
- Various species of Sarcocystis viz. S. fusiformis and S. levinei in buffaloes, S. miescheriana and S. suihominis in pigs, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta and S. hominis in cattle, S. capracanis and S. hircicanis in goats have been recorded. The overall prevalence was 73.72%, 67.98%, 87.03% and 73.33% in buffaloes, pigs, cattle and goats, respectively.
- Incidence of Theileria annulata in cattle and buffalo was 4.51% in Tarai of Kumaon hills. Parasite was more common in cattle than buffaloes and adult of both are more susceptible.
- The overall prevalence of common tick Boophilus microplus in cattle and buffaloes was 41.24 percent in Tarai region. Young animals and crossbred cattle were more susceptible to tick infestation as compared to adult and zebu cattle.
2. Pathogenesis of Sarcocystis tenella infection in experimentally infected sheep has been established.
3. Biochemical characterization of Sarcocystis suihominis and S. miescheriana has been done.
4. Migratory behaviour of Toxocara vitulorum in mice, rat, guinea pigs and monkeys has been established.
5. Standardization of immunodiagnostic tests for parasitic infections:
- Fasciolosis: Two major fractions of proteins, one comprising of low molecular weight proteins (10.0, 14.0, 19.0 kDa ) and the other containing medium molecular weight proteins (28.0, 35.0 kDa) Have been used for standardization of Dot-ELISA immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminants. Cross-reactivity between Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum epiclitum has also been established.
- Toxocarosis: Immunoreactive fractions of embryonated egg antigen of T. vitulorum were identified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The antigen was further used for standardization of IHA, CIEP and Dot-ELISA to detect dormant larvae in pregnant cows and buffaloes.
- Visceral larva migrans: Diagnosis of visceral larva migrans in monkeys caused by T. vitulorum larvae was accomplished by detecting antibodies in sera of experimentally infected monkey by DID and CIEP.
- Metacestode infections: Different immunodiagnostic tests viz. Oucterlony bidimensional immunodiffusion test, CIEP, IHA, Bentonite flocculation test, Fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and ELISA have been standardized using whole cyst, cyst fluid and scolex antigens of Cysticercus cellulose. FAT using whole cyst and cyst fluid antigens gave excellent results.
- Trypanosomosis: Passive haemagglutination test was standardized and found to be specific for trypanosomosis in buffaloes.
- Sarcocystosis: CIEP was found to be more sensitive than DID and IEP for diagnosis of S. capracanis when soluble antigen prepared from mature micro-sarcocysts was used. Similarly, CIEP was found most satisfactory for the purpose of diagnosis of S. cruzi and S. hirsuta than SRID, DID, IEP, RIEP and precipitin tests. However, ELISA using partially purified sarcocyst antigen was found to be the most sensitive and specific test for immunodiagnosis of infection in animals.
6. Treatment and control of parasitic infections:
- Trematode infections: Oxyclozanide (@10mg/kg) were highly effective for treatment of fasciolosis and amphistomosis in cattle. However, Triclabendazole (@25mg/kg) was highly effective for treating fasciolosis in buffaloes.
- Nematode infections: In equine strongylosis, Doramectin (@0.2 mg/kg) was the most effective drug. Ivermectin and Pyrental pamoate were also highly effective. The horses of six out of eight organized farm surveyed for benzimidazole resistance were found to harbour moderately to severly resistant strongyle population.
- Tick infestation: The in vivo trials with Dimecron, Malathion and Sevin in 1.0, 0.75 and 0.5 percent concentration was 100 percent effective againstBoophilus tick. The efficacy of hydrodistilled extracts of Artemisia annua, A. vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum and Tagetes minuta was screened against B. microplus ticks and compared with some ready to use herbal preparations (Pestoban, Pestoonar and AV/EPP/14) and chemical acaricides (deltamethrin, fenvalerate). Higher concentrations of herbal extracts (1:10) were comparable in reducing in vitro mortality and biological functions of ticks.
SELECTED RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Dr. Stuti Vatsya, Professor & Head
- Kumar, A., Garg, Rajat, Yadav, C.L., Vatsya, Stuti, Kumar, R.R., Sugumar, P., Chandran, D., Mangamoorib, L.N. and Bedarkar, S.N. 2009. Immune responses against recombinant tick antigen, Bm95, for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 165: 119-124.
- Vatsya, Stuti and Yadav, C.L. 2011. Evaluation of acaricide resistance mechanisms in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from India. International J. Acarology. 37(5): 405-410.
- Abdullah, S., Yadav, C.L. and Vatsya, Stuti. 2012. Esterase profile of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations collected from Northern India exhibiting varied susceptibility to deltamethrin. Experimental and Applied Acarology. 58: 315-325.
- Vatsya, Stuti, Yadav, C.L. and Garg, Rajat. 2012. Detecting mutation in sodium channel gene in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from northern India for genotyping deltamethrin susceptible and resistant alleles. International J. Acarology. 38(8): 726-730.
- Abdullah, S., Yadav, C.L. and Vatsya, Stuti. 2013. Comparative efficacy of two synthetic pyrethroids against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Acarina. 21(1): 84-87.
Dr. V.S. Singh, Assistant Professor
- Singh, V.S., Palod, Jyoti , Shukla, S.K. and Shukla ,P.K.(2008).Influence of a herbal anti-coccidial on growth, parasitological, haematological parameters and carcass traits of broilers experimentally infected with mixed field isolates of Eimeria species. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 18 (10):1057-62.
- Singh V.S., Palod, Jyoti and Shukla S. K.(2011).Comparative efficacy of herbal coccidiostat with or without maduramycin against mixed Eimeria species infection in broilers. Indian Vet. J. 88(8):153-155.
- V.S. Singh, Jyoti Palod, Stuti Vatsya, Rajeev Ranjan Kumar and S.K. Shukla (2013). Effect of sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) supplementation on performance of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection. Vet. Rese. International.1(2): 41-45.
- Sakshi Chauhan, V.S.Singh and Vipul Thakur (2015). Effect of Calotropis procera (leaf) and Amprolium supplementation on haematological parameters of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection. Indian J.Vet. Med. 35 (1): 17-23.
- Sakshi Chauhan, V.S.Singh, Stuti Vatsya, Jyoti Palod, Vipul Thakur, Sakshi Tiwari and Nitin Kandpal (2015). Effect of Calotropis procera (Madar) and Amprolium supplementation on growth performance of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection. Haryana Vet. 54(2): 1989-201.
Dr. Rajeev Ranjan Kumar, Assistant Professor
- Garg, R., Kumar, R.R., Yadav, C.L. and Banerjee, P.S. (2007). Duration of anthelmintic effect of three formulation (Oral, Injection and Pour-on) against multiple anthelmintic resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Vet. Res. Commun., 31: 749-755.
- Garg, R., Yadav, C.L., Kumar, R. R., Vatsya, Stuti and Godara, R. (2009). The epidemiology of Fasciolosis in ruminants in different geo-climatic regions of north-India. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 41:1695-1700.
- Kumar, A., Garg, Rajat, Yadav, C.L., Vatsya, Stuti, Kumar, R. R. and S.N. Bedarkar (2009). Immune responses against recombinant tick antigen Bm95 for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in cattle. Vet. Parasitol, 165: 119-124.
- Rialch, A., Vatsya, S. and Kumar, R.R. (2013). Detection of benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of sub-Himalayan region of northern India using different tests. Vet. Parasitol., 139: 312-318.
- Yadav, C.L., Garg, R., Kumar, R.R., Banerjee, P.S. and Godara, R. (2007). Seasonal dynamics of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes in Uttaranchal. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 77(2): 133-135.